Monday, 21 May 2018

Don't Go Away

Illustration by @oztheartist

You’re medication for my broken heart
A story of laughter and despair at once
I accept both without a single doubt
Since the day I knew you’re the rain for my drought.

Scared was I in one dreadful night!
When the storm stroked inflicting fright
Swiftly dragged me to one terrific reflection:
Either you will be gone—with or without reason.

I would have kept your name in my pray
For I’ve fallen too hard.
Rarely have I given my whole heart.
At this point, just please don't go away!


Writer: Lista R
Illustrator: Ozzy (@oztheartist)

Friday, 18 May 2018

5 Manfaat Belajar Bahasa Inggris

Banyaknya manfaat yang bisa kamu dapatkan kalau kamu bisa bahasa Inggris—dari keren sampe ke beken! Langsung aja simak artikelnya, yuk! :D

Bahasa Inggris adalah salah satu bahasa yang paling sering diucapkan di dunia. Berdasarkan www.britishstudy.com, bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa resmi dari 53 negara. Bahasa ini merupakan bahasa internasional karena selain 53 negara tersebut, negara-negara lain di dunia menjadikan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa ke dua atau setidaknya menjadi salah satu bahasa yang wajib dipelajari.
Ada banyak manfaat yang dapat diraih ketika seseorang memiliki keterampilan dalam bahasa Inggris, yakni:
1. More Language, More Knowledge
Semakin banyak bahasa yang dikuasai seseorang, maka semakin banyak pula ilmu dan pengetahuan yang dimiliki. Anggap kamu dapat berbahasa Inggris secara aktif dan pasif, maka kamu dapat menerima pengetahuan yang tidak hanya bersumber dari bahasa Indonesia saja, tapi juga dari bahasa Inggris.
Good news nih buat kamu, 65% buku yang ada di dunia diproduksi dalam bahasa Inggris. Itu jumlah yang banyak banget loh, guys! Bayangkan kamu dapat membaca pengetahuan apapun dengan hanya bisa bahasa Inggris! Ah tapi kan nanti juga ada terjemahan bahasa Indonesianya. Iya ada, tapi itu lama banget. Butuh bertahun-tahun loh untuk sebuah buku diterjemahkan ke bahasa lain. Yakin gak keburu bapuk?
Kalau kamu bisa bahasa Inggris, kamu bisa dengan mudah mengikuti perkembangan pengetahuan terkini serta berita-berita yang lagi trend di dunia, jadi kamu akan lebih up to date dan lebih berwawasan ketimbang kalau gak bisa bahasa Inggris.
2. Menambah Kecerdasan
Mempelajari bahasa asing itu baik bagi kecerdasan dan kemampuan memori otak. Otak kita terbiasa dengan bahasa sendiri pun terbiasa dengan bahasa asing yang dipelajari. Hal ini termasuk menghafal kosa kata, memahami aturan bahasanya, sekaligus kebudayaan dari bahasa tersebut. Kinerja otak menjadi ganda, dan ini sama halnya dengan melatih kemampuan kognitif dan memori otak.
Lebih lengkapnya, dilansir dari bebrainfit.com, beberapa manfaat yang bisa didapatkan ketika seseorang mempelajari bahasa asing adalah: memiliki fokus dan konsentrasi yang lebih tinggi, lebih kreatif, bagus dalam perencanaan dan penentuan priotitas, menambah kecerdasan dan memori sehingga menurunkan resiko penuaan otak, demensia, dan Alzheimer.
3. Menambah Jaringan Pertemanan
Sebagai bahasa internasional, pengguna bahasa Inggris juga tersebar diseluruh dunia. Dengan bisa bahasa Inggris berarti menambah jaringan relasi secara internasional pula. Imbasnya lingkaran pertemanan yang dimiliki tidak hanya diisi dengan orang-orang yang berasal dari negara sendiri, tapi juga dari berbagai negara di pelosok dunia. More language, more friends!
4. Jadi Sarana untuk Melanjutkan Pendidikan Ke Luar Negeri
Untuk seseorang yang mempunyai cita-cita melanjutkan pendidikan ke luar negeri, bahasa Inggris adalah salah satu syarat mutlak yang sangat fundamental wajib untuk dipenuhi. Kemampuan bahasa  Inggris itu dibuktikan melalui tes bahasa Inggris standar internasional, seperti TOEFL atau IELTS. Kalau bisa bahasa Inggris, kedua tes itu bukan perkara sulit untuk dihadapi. 
Saat melanjutkan studi di luar negeri, itu jadi momen untuk memperdalam keterampilan bahasa Inggris secara aktif. Ibarat pepatah—sambil menyelam minum air, di sana, selain menuntut ilmu juga bisa sekaligus melatih bahasa Inggris secara langsung dengan adanya komunikasi antara kamu dengan lingkungan baru. Siap-siap pulang ke Indonesia jadi bulepotan beneran! :’D
5. Terlihat Lebih Keren
Manfaat ke lima ini cenderung subjektif sih, tapi memang iya, kan? Melihat orang dengan performa bahasa Inggris yang oke membuat kita terkagum-kagum. Ada keinginan  untuk bisa berbahasa Inggris seperti mereka juga. Lihat skinnyfabs, dengan aksen britishnya, kemampuan bahasa Inggris dia terbilang keren. Dan karena itu, dia juga sekarang jadi beken. Sekarang mau keren udah gak susah lagi ya, tinggal belajar bahasa Inggris aja sampe bisa. Bonusnya, siapa tahu nanti jadi beken juga! :D

Naah… Setelah tahu keuntungan apa saja yang didapatkan, udah gak malas lagi kan belajar bahasa Inggris? Asah terus sampe kamu jadi keren dengan selalu ingat manfaatnya. Dengan mengingat keuntungannya, ini mendorong kamu untuk selalu semangat ningkatin skill bahasa Inggris kamu. Good luck!

Referensi:


Ditulis oleh: 
Lista Rani

Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Translation Equivalences and Its Relation with Translation Techniques

Understand the Translation Deeper


One of crucial element in translation is determining the exact equivalence in target language (TL) text which has the same value as source language (SL) text. The different cultures and language structures between two languages are certainly one of the biggest challenge for a translator when transferring message in source text (ST) to target text (TT). Thus, there can be no fully exact translation or absolute equivalence since no two languages are identical either in the meanings or in the styles. However, the translation may be close to the original, but there can be no identity in detail. Furthermore, Venuti in his book “The Translation Studies Reader” explains:

“Messages differ primarily in the degree to which content or form is the dominant consideration. Of course, the content of a message can never be completely abstracted from the form, and form is nothing apart from content; but in some messages the content is of primary consideration, and in others the form must be given a higher priority.”
(Venuti, 2000, p.126-127)

The explanation above obviously clarifies that it is hard to find the precise equivalence in form and content simultaneously since the translator itself must choose and emphasize whether it is the meaning or the form that will be given the priority. The decision certainly depends on the kind of text will be translated as well as its purpose. Nevertheless, by generally speaking, the form is commonly sacrificed for the sake of the content.  Hence, Venuti (ibid.) further says that only rarely can one reproduce both content and form in a translation.

 The notion of equivalence in translation has written extensively by some experts, however, this article solely discuss equivalence theory according to Eugene A. Nida (ibid.) which divides equivalence into two types: formal equivalence (F-E)  and dynamic equivalence (D-E).

Formal equivalence (F-E) focuses attention to the message of the text, both in form and content. F-E translation is basically a source-oriented, hence it should match as closely as possible with the source text (ST)’s languages and cultures. F-E translation’s characteristics are to preserve a. grammatical units, b. consistency in word usage, and c. meanings in terms of the source contexts. Especially for point (a.), preserving grammatical units of source language including transferring the same word class, not changing sentence boundaries, paragraphs, punctuations, etc. This obviously implies that formal equivalence is mechanically reproduce the form of ST into TT which brings to the fulfillment of accuracy and correctness. Consequently, the translation tends to be absurd, rigid, and not readily intelligible to the average readers of receptor language (Nida, ibid., p.134-135).

Dynamic equivalence (D-E) works the opposite of F-E. D-E translation is more flexible since according to Nida (ibid.),  it is mentioned as the closest-natural equivalent to the source-language message. The definition clarifies briefly 3 essential characteristics of D-E, namely: a. equivalent, which points toward the source language message, b. natural, which directs to receptor language, c. closest, which binds the two languages together on the basis of the highest degree of approximation. The D-E aims to complete the naturalness of expression. It produces a natural translation which is acceptable for target readers i.e. the TT should comprise of a. language and culture of receptor language as a whole, b. the context of particular message. This D-E translation is directed primarily toward equivalence of meanings rather than forms. It makes the receptor reader or audience feels like not reading a translated text. The effect is essentially identical as the original receptors read the ST (Nida, ibid., p.136).

Considering the explanation of both equivalence types by Nida (ibid.), it takes to conclusion that F-E preserves the form of the original without concerning the content looks like in the receptor language due to its persistence regarding accuracy and correctness. It is transferring sentence to sentence and concept to concept. Conversely, D-E is oriented to the naturalness and acceptability of the receptor language. It strongly precedes the contents rather than the forms.

The notion of equivalence types by Nida is basically the same as translation ideology which firstly introduced by Venuti (1995, p.20) namely, domestication and foreignization. Venuti (ibid.) defines domestication as “an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values, bringing the author back home,” while foreignization is, “an ethnodeviant pressure on those values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text, sending the reader abroad.” Thus, the former one is receptor-oriented by replacing the source culture with the target culture which has the same concept as D-E by Nida (1964), meanwhile the latter one is source-oriented by preserving the differences of the source culture in the target culture which has the same notion as F-E by Nida (1964). Therefore, by narrowly speaking, writer concludes that it is merely a different term proposed by both experts. D-E = domestication, F-E=foreignization.

The notion of equivalence type which has described above will be explained further by relating it with translation technique to know which technique that is including into F-E and which is including into D-E (However, before you read further, it is advisable that you have understood each of translation techniques proposed by Molina & Albir). According to Nababan (2013, p.34), translation techniques that belong to foreignization or F-E are: pure borrowing, natural borrowing, calque, and literal translation, meanwhile the rest belongs to domestication or D-E. Borrowing and calque is clearly F-E since it contains foreign words which adapted to receptor language. The literal translation which preserves form and meaning of ST is definitely includes to F-E as well. The rest of 15 techniques are definitely D-E since the translation which using those techniques are adapting to receptor text both in form and meaning.

In the light of above, here is the table to clarify latter explanation.


Equivalence Type
F-E / Foreignization
D-E / Domestication
Pure Borrowing
Adaptation
Natural Borrowing
Amplification
Calque
Compensation
Literal Translation
Description

Established Equivalent
Generalization
Linguistic Amplification
Linguistic Compression
Literal Translation
Modulation
Particularization
Reduction
Substitution
Transposition
Variation




Written by: Lista Rani
Image Source: Pinterest

Monday, 14 May 2018

Translation Techniques According to Molina and Albir

Learn Translation

Translation technique is defined as the realization of translation process i.e. method and strategy of translation. According to Molina & Albir (2002, p.508), it refers to translation product and works for the micro unit of the text. However, translation technique constantly misunderstood with the term of method and strategy translation due to the confusion between translation process and translation product. Furthermore, Molina states that over-lapping terms make it difficult to be understood as well,

“Terminalogical diversity and the operlaping terms make it difficult to use these terms and to be understood. The same concept is expressed with different names and the classifications vary, covering different areas of problems. In one classification one term may oper-lap another in a different system of classification. The category itself is given different names, for example, Delisle uses procedure, translation strategy, etc.”
                                                            ___(ibid., p.506)

However, there is a clear distinction to distinguish method, strategy, and technique of translation (The writer merely emphasizes the definition of translation techniques and a little bit explanation about method to make it clearer). It is mentioned by Molina & Albir (ibid.), “The translation method affects the way micro-unit of the text are translated: translation techniques (p.508).” It means that translation method and technique are connected each other. The translation technique can be seen and analyzed by which translation method used by the translator, for example: literal or adaption method which is used by the translator. The translator who uses adaptation method somehow leads to translation techniques which tend to be figurative or adapted, for example discursive creation. It works the opposite if the translator employs literal method which leads to more literal translated texts e.g. literal translation.

According to Molina & Albir (ibid., p.509), translation techniques have five basic characteristic, they are:

a.       They affect the result of the translation
b.      They are classified by comparison with the original
c.       They affect micro-unit text
d.      They are by nature discursive and contextual
e.       They are functional

In the light of the above, there are 18 translation techniques proposed by Molina & Albir (ibid., p.509-511):

1. Adaptation

This technique is used to replace a source text (ST) cultural or social element with one from target text (TT) which more familiar for target readers, e.g. to change biscuit (UK) to cookie (US).

2. Amplification

This technique is employed to introduce details that are not formulated in ST by adding some words (addition) or information, paraphrasing, making it explicit, or creating footnote to make the translation clear and help target readers understand the text. In detail Molina states, “This includes SCFA’s explicitation (Vinay & Darbelnet), Delisle’s addition, Margot’s legitimate and illigitimate paraphrase, Newmark’s explicative paraphrase and Delisle’s periphrasis and paraphrase. Footnotes are a type of amplification. Amplification is in opposition to reduction.”

Example:
ST       : Doing her thesis, she drinks a cup of coffee.
TT       : Sambil mengejakan skripsinya, dia meminum secangkir kopi.

3. Borrowing

This technique is used to take a word or expression straight from another language. There are two types of borrowing i.e. pure and natural borrowing. Pure borrowing refers to word of ST which purely loaned by TT without any change e.g. keyboard (English) to keyboard (Indonesian). A translator uses pure borrowing frequently because no equivalence found in TT for the word. Meanwhile, the natural borrowing means the word in ST is naturalized by the spelling rules in TL. It aims to make the translated word more acceptable and common in TL.

Example:
ST       : The medical forum will discuss about Tourette syndrome this week.
TT       : Forum medis akan membahas tentang sindrom turette minggu ini.

4. Calque

It is literal translation of foreign word or phrase and it can be lexical or structural.

For example:
ST       : The Ministry of Defense takes responsibility for the terrorist attack in Jakarta.
TT       : Menteri Pertahanan bertanggungjawab atas serangan teroris di Jakarta.

5. Compensation

This technique is to introduce a ST stylistic effect or element of information in another place in the TT because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the ST.

Example:
ST       : A flock of bird flies to the north.
TT       : Sekawanan burung terbang ke arah utara,

6. Description

This technique uses description to describe word or expression from ST which is not understood in TT.

Example:
ST       : Gado-gado
TT       : A traditional cuisine of Indonesia that consists of vegetables and special local ingredients.

7. Discursive Creation

This technique is employed to establish a temporary equivalence which is totally different, unpredictable, and out of context. It commonly used for translating book title or any sort of literary texts.    

Example:
ST       : Love is an open door.
TT       : Cintamu yang indah.

8. Established Equivalent

This technique applies recognized term or expression in dictionary or language use as an equivalence in TT. The meaning and style of ST are the same as TT.

Example:
ST       : Cold
TT       : Dingin

9. Generalization

This technique is employed to use neutral or more general term e.g. to translate Indonesian terms becak, bajaj, bemo, delman into vehicle in English. This technique is in opposition to particularization.            

10. Linguistic Amplification

This technique is used for adding linguistic elements. It is frequently employed in consecutive interpreting and dubbing. It is in opposition to linguistic compression.

Example:
ST       : Absolutely right!
TT       : Ya, itu benar sekali!

11. Linguistic Compression

It is opposed to linguistic amplification, hence its use is for suppressing linguistic element to make it brief due to the consideration of time and space. It is commonly employed in subtitling and simultaneous interpreting.

Example:
ST       : Let it go
TT       : Bebaskan

12. Literal Translation

This technique is used to translate words, terms, or expressions word for word. This technique will be properly applied when the form coincides with the word and meaning.

Example:
ST       : Your smile as sweet as the honey.
TT       : Senyummu semanis madu.

13. Modulation

This technique is employed to change the point of view, focus, or cognitive category in relation to the TT.

Example:
ST       : Watch your step!
TT       : Awaslah!

14. Particularization

It is the opposite of generalization, therefore this technique creates TT more specific, concrete, and precise than ST e.g. to translate vehicle in English to becak, bajai, bemo, delman in Indonesian.

15. Reduction

This technique is opposed to amplification which signifies that it suppresses information items of ST into TT. This is including omission and implicitation.

Example:
ST       : I’ve been searching my whole life.  
TT       : Seumur hidup.

16. Substitution

This technique is used to substitute paralinguistic element (signs, gestures, etc) into linguistic element or vice versa.

Example:
ST       : (A nodding head). (Hindi)
TT       : No. (English)

17. Transposition

This technique is employed to change grammatical categories. It is including shift of class, unit, structure, and level/rank. The following example is changing the word class from noun peace (eng) into verb berdamai (Ind).

Example:
ST       : I make peace with the past.
TT       : Aku berdamai dengan masa lalu.

18. Variation

It refers to the change of linguistic or paralinguistic elements (intonations, gestures) which affects linguistic variation, such as style, changes of textual tone, social and geographical dialect, etc. For example: change of dialectal indicators for characters when translating for the theater.

Example:
ST       : The party talking or the chocolate fondue

TT       : Sebabkan pesta ataupun makan coklat itu.


For further reading, I suggest you to read a journal by Molina and Albir:

Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach (2002)

Definition of Translation Based on Many Experts


There are many theories concerning translation that are proposed by experts. The theories reflect the expert’s paradigms on the nature of translation. According to Nida and Taber (1982, p.12), “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of a source-language message, firstly in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.” Based on her theory, it is significant not to merely transfer the message of the source text, but also to transfer the style of the text to receptor language. It implies that a translator must transfer the meanings of the text delivered well to the readers, meanwhile style should attach to the translated text as well.

Wills (1982) in Budianto & Fardhani (2010, p.1) asserts that a translation is a method of finding an optimally equivalent target language text from a written source language text. It requires syntactic, semantic, stylistic, and text pragmatic comprehension by the translator of the original text. Compared to Nida & Taber’s theory, Will defines more specific about aspects that must be considered in transferring source language (SL) to target language (TL) by mentioning syntactic, semantic, text pragmatic comprehension, and stylistic aspects.

J.C. Catford (ibid., p.5) defines translation as follows: “The replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).” Meanwhile, Larson (1984, p.3) proposes that translation is a change form of the source language into the form of receptor language whether it is written or spoken. In addition, according to Newmark, “Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text” (1988, p.5).

Based on the experts’s explanation above, essentially the translation can be defined as an attempt in replacing words from one language to another language by concerning the meaning and form or style of the text. Hence, it creates the closest equivalence that can be acceptable in the receptor language (Nida and Taber (1982); Wills (1982); J.C. Catford (1965); Larson (1984); and Newmark (1988).

Wednesday, 9 May 2018

Penyebab Seseorang Males Belajar Bahasa Inggris


Saat ini, nyaris semua orang beranggapan bahwa bahasa Inggris itu penting. Tapi kenapa udah tau penting, masih aja males belajar bahasa Inggris? Duh…  susah banget sih ngilangin penyakit yang namanya males itu! Padahal kalau bisa lancar bahasa Inggris macam Cinta Laura kan banyak banget kemudahan yang bisa didapet! Ehehe… jangankan kayak Cinta Laura deh, bisa ngerti full teks bahasa Inggris aja udah bersyukur :’D

Tentunya ada beberapa alasan kenapa seseorang itu males belajar bahasa Inggris. Langsung aja dibaca, yuk!

1.      Perbedaan pola DM dan MD
Bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris punya kaidah bahasa yang berbeda. Salah satunya dalam aturan DM dan MD. Bahasa Indonesia punya pola aturan Diterangkan-Menerangkan (DM), sedangkan bahasa Inggris memegang pola Menerangkan-Diterangkan (MD).  Contohnya, frasa “Gadis Cantik” diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris menjadi “Beautiful Girl” bukan “Girl Beautiful.” Kalau mau belajar bahasa Inggris, kita orang Indonesia harus terbiasa dengan pola MD. Ini jadi salah satu tantangan mendasar kenapa beberapa orang males belajar bahasa Inggris—gak terbiasa dengan pola MD.

2.      English Grammar Njeliwet!
Kalau dilihat dari segi tata bahasa alias grammar, bahasa Indonesia jauh lebih sederhana ketimbang bahasa Inggris. Contoh gampangnya aja deh: dalam bahasa Indonesia, orang gak harus mikirin v1, v2, v3 ketika hendak mengungkapkan sesuatu dengan konteks waktu yang berbeda. Sedangkan dalam bahasa Inggris, setiap kalimat itu diungkapkan sesuai dengan aturan kala waktu (tenses) untuk memisahkan konteks masa lalu, masa sekarang, dan masa depan. Jadi yah, kalau mau jago bahasa Inggris, tenses adalah salah satu hal dasar yang wajib dikuasai. Setiap kalimat itu pakai tenses, dan ada 12 tenses dalam bahasa Inggris. Hmmm…mungkin udah ogah duluan kali ya ngapalin formulanya juga :v
Itu baru perihal tenses loh, guys! belum yang lain—masih banyak aturan grammar dalam bahasa Inggris yang harus dipahami, misalnya passive voice, gerund, modal, subjunctive, dan lain-lain yang bisa menunjang kemampuan bahasa Inggris kamu lebih lanjut.
Anyway, buat kalian yang mau baca tentang tenses bisa baca artikel ini: KONSEP DASAR TENSES BAHASA INGGRIS.  Tenang aja, penjelasannya singkat, padat, dan pastinya gak njeliwet, kok! Cocok buat pengenalan secara umum mengenai tenses aja. Baca ya! :D
 3.      Perbendaharaan Kata Bahasa Inggris Bejibun
Berdasarkan Republika online (2016) dan Oxford Dictionaries Online (2017), ada sekitar 100 ribu kosa kata bahasa Indonesia dan 220 ribu kosa kata bahasa Inggris.  Ini berarti kosa kata bahasa Inggris 2x lipat lebih kaya dibanding bahasa Indonesia! Hmm… dalam bahasa Indonesia aja, masih banyak kata yang belum diketahui artinya, apalagi dalam bahasa Inggris :’D
Jumlah kosa kata bahasa Inggris yang bejibun ini juga bisa dilihat kala seseorang belajar kata kerja tak beraturan alias english irregular verbs yang wajib dihafalin waktu sekolah dulu. Jadi nostalgia… betapa malasnya penulis kala itu menghafal irregular verbs.  Kamu gitu juga, gak? Ayo ngakuuu :D
Ketiga hal itulah yang menyebabkan seseorang males belajar bahasa Inggris—ini lebih kompleks dan sulit untuk dimengerti (lebih-lebih dari doi *eh). Tapi intinya, semua balik lagi ke niat pribadi masing-masing. Kalau keinginan kuat untuk belajar pasti seseorang itu bakal belajar tanpa memandang seberapa besar rintangan yang dihadapi. Ingat pepatah bersakit-sakit dahulu, bersenang-senang kemudian—belajar bahasa Inggris emang sih susah… tapi bayangkan nanti hasilnya ketika kamu menguasai bahasa Inggris: semua menjadi lebih mudah—pengetahuan jadi lebih banyak, bisa baca buku versi bahasa Inggris juga; memperluas jaringan pertemanan, bisa chattingan sama bule misalnya; dan pastinya kamu jadi lebih kece dibanding temen-temen kamu yang gak bisa bahasa Inggris cuz you’re gonna be badass over there!
Okay, sekarang waktunya untuk saya ngopi. Semoga artikelnya bermanfaat dan jangan lagi males buat belajar bahasa Inggris ya, guys! :D

Baca artikel selanjutnya: 5 Awesome Benefits of Learning English
Writer: Lista Rani
Image Source: Pinterest