Saturday, 22 July 2017

An Irony Behind A Baby Face


A lot of my fellas told me that I have baby face, sorta. I look younger than my age. A stranger on the street called me with 'dek' rather than 'mbak', some of them occasionally asked me which grade I am, then I answered,  "am a college student." Then they told me, "You look younger, I guess you are a high school student." Kinds like which. If I could say honestly, I don't really like the baby-face thing, but the idea of look younger is great. Well, I know this appearance judgement is very subjective. Am not that fully or literally baby face, but surely I look younger. That's it.

Despite all those designations toward me, despite that younger thing, I want to show them that I have a very sophisticated mind. My personality indicates the rarest one amongst women. I have plans and goals including backups. I keep on track to reach my ambitions. I handle things on my own. I have taste in heavy reading. I have bla bla bla and bla bla bla which eventually make you feel irritating. The point is...                 
                                         
This look and personality bring to an irony.

Ferdinand de Saussure once defined 'langue' and 'parole' as a code and a message, form and expression, a concrete manifestation and an abstract knowledge. 'Baby face' is a langue and its parole is 'babyish, childish appeareance, small-featured face'. 'Sophisticated' is the langue and 'a high degree of complexity' is its parole. The form and expression between both is irony. It shows each other's contrary.

I hate it when people see me as a girl, THAT girl, as my surface structure which unconsciously bring their brain into an abstract conception called unsophisticated mind I have. "Hey, philosophy is not type of your reading, right? kid books are more suitable for you." / "It is kind of weird looking at you, doing something which preferred done by someone older than you." / "b o c a h" / or whatever kinds of remarks they say to me.  The bottom line is I hate the irony. 

Consequently, I occasionally adjust my behavior like a little girl, but deep down inside I prefer to look like a sophisticated woman. However, people want to see what they think it is right to see, and sometimes what's already in you cannot be denied so much.  Well, yeah I hate the irony, but a plus pro is the idea of look younger, right?

Above all I figure out, either in their identity or personality, everyone is undercover. Including when I said, "I am sophisticated."

Lista Rani


Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Kasus Pembullyan Farhan di Gunadarma, Komentar-Komentar yang Out of Topic, hingga Rumor Gunadarma Diblacklist

Key words: Kasus Perundungan (Bully) terhadap Farhan di Universitas Gunadarma, Bullying, Efek Bully terhadap Korban Bully, Tipe-tipe Bullying, Hasty Generalization, Gunadarma diblacklist perusahaan.

Before I start this post, lemme show you the bullying video which befell to Farhan (19).


Pertama kali nonton video itu, what inside my mind was: Masih zaman bullying?  Ridiculously the culprit was a college student who supposedly has left that kinda thing a.k.a bullying. Korban bully bernama Farhan yang katanya mengidap autisme, tapi saya membaca salah satu berita yang menyatakan bahwa korban bukanlah pengidap autisme. Terlepas korban pengidap autisme atau tidak, tetap saja tindakan bullying tidak dapat dibenarkan. How much perfect are you by being dare enough to bully someone? Apalagi pelakunya teman kelas sendiri which I don’t get it why, in the video shows his friends didn’t defend Farhan anymore. Oh my God *facepalmed*

You know how bullying affects the victim?
According to a website called stopbullying(dot)gov which provides nearly every information regarding bullying, korban bully dapat mengalami masalah fisik, sekolah, dan kesehatan mental. In detail, it is mentioned that the victim are more likely to experience:

·         “Depression and anxiety, increased feelings of sadness and loneliness, changes in sleep and eating patterns, and loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy. These issues may persist into adulthood.
·         Health complaints
·         Decreased academic achievement—GPA and standardized test scores—and school participation. They are more likely to miss, skip, or drop out of school.”

Di point pertama disebutkan bahwa efek-efek tersebut dapat bertahan sampai ia dewasa, tapi yang pasti semua efek itu tergantung korbannya; ada yang mengalami itu semua, sebagian, atau hanya beberapa. For how long those effects may happen to the victim is also depend on the victim. Yang jelas, ketika berangkat ke sekolah atau kampus dan tahu you are going to be bullied (like serious bullying) by your own classmates, itu rasanya nyesek banget. Despite all the mentioned effects above, dengan membully, para pembully itu sudah merusak momen yang seharusnya produktif dan indah di sekolah / kampus menjadi menyeramkan. Bagaimana jika korban termasuk orang yang mudah menyerah dan bermental lemah? You have no idea. Really. Terlebih lagi jikalau korbannya mengidap penyakit terbelakang. You have no idea plus plus plus the bully sort of a heartless and brainless person.

However, by being bullied leads you to be a stronger person in the future. Saya yakin Farhan jadi sosok yang lebih kuat dan tangguh diantara teman-temannnya. The good news is semua efek negatif itu bisa dialihkan menjadi energi yang lebih positif yang bisa mengubah keadaan korban menjadi lebih baik. Am pretty sure that Farhan is able to handle all those things and be the most successful person amongst his classmates later in years ahead.

Oke, cukup tentang efek bullying. We are heading to another topic concerning Gunadarma University. Dengan menjadi viralnya kasus Farhan di banyak media di Indonesia: media berita online, media TV swasta nasional dan TVRI, media sosial terutama Instagram (IG) yang mana kasus ini sendiri diviralkan pertama kali oleh akun IG TNBG (thenewbikingregetan) and Lambe Turah in which sampai sekarang kasus pembullyan Farhan masih diblow up oleh media-media Indonesia yang membuat nama universitas ikut tercoreng. Siapa sih yang gak malu terkenal karena ‘baunya? Jadi, saat ini banyak sekali pihak yang memandang sebelah mata pada Gunadarma. Lucunya, banyak netizen yang mengomentari video pembullyan Farhan di Instagram OOT alias Out of Topic atau keluar jalur. Videonya tentang pembullyan, yang dikomen malah kualitas Gunadarma dan tidak sedikit dari netizen yang secara eksplisit berkomentar dengan nada negatif yang provokatif. Contohnya: 


Gross! It’s really nasty right?! First, si mbak (let’s call it si mbak) ini berkomentar dengan Bahasa yang tidak santun. Second, penggunaan EYD Bahasa Indonesia yang terlalu berantakan di komentar tersebut. Third, si mbak ini berkomentar dengan MENJUSTIFIKASI Universitas Gunadarma dengan satu sampel yaitu: video tentang pembullyan pada Farhan. It reminds me to a short story entitled “Love is a Fallacy” by Max Schulman who mentioned 7 types of fallacy. Ada satu fallacy (kesalahan) yang disebut oleh Schulman bernama Hasty Generalization (Generalisasi yang Gegabah). Singkatnya, “Hasty generalization is a fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence” (Nordquist, 2017). Kesimpulan yang diambil dengan bukti yang terlalu terbatas sehingga kesimpulan tersebut cenderung tidak logis disebabkan kurangnya data atau bukti yang mendukung. Hal ini menyebabkan justifikasi yang gegabah, tidak valid, dan tidak dapat dipercaya begitu saja.

Si mbak membandingkan antara UI dan Gunadarma dengan pernyataan-pernyataan yang gegabah dan cenderung semena-mena. Darimana dia tahu yang sebenarnya kalau UI itu X, Gundar itu Y dalam kasus ini? Pernyataannya provokatif pula, yang mana bisa menimbulkan kesan negatif dan salah paham terhadap Universitas Gunadarma. Beberapa orang menganggap suatu komentar itu absolut benar bukan? Sehingga mudah terperdaya dan percaya tanpa riset lebih lanjut. Sudah hasty generalization, judge a book by its cover pula. Padahal yang benar, DONT judge a book by its cover.

There is a saying “Your words define your character,” yang Anda ucapkan mencerminkan karakter Anda. Therefore, bisa dilihatlah ya yang berkomentar semacam si Mbak ini kira-kira seperti apa karakternya. Sadly, masih banyak komentar-komentar tidak bermutu lain yang menjustifikasi pihak universitas dengan adanya video tersebut. Banyak sekali. Bisa dicek di kolom komentar akun IG @thenewbikingregetan. *sceptical*

Orang-orang yang mengomentari kolom komentar seperti Mbak tersebut, entah dia sadar atau tidak, sedang melakukan tindakan perundungan (bully) terhadap Universitas Gunadarma. A website called National Centre against Bullying menyebutkan bahwa ada 4  tipe bullying, yakni: physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying. Tipe komentar seperti di atas termasuk cyber bullying in which pelaku melontarkan rumor atau hinaan terhadap pihak yang dibully. Lalu apa faedahnya orang-orang yang berkomentar dengan cara yang tidak classy itu, yang katanya mengecam tindakan bully, tapi diwaktu yang sama mereka juga melakukan tindakan cyber bullying? It’s funny right?

Tidak cukup sampai disitu, kasus bully ini jadi melebar kemana-kemana. For instance: 


WHAT?!!

Speechless. Absolutely. Kenapa jadi ke blacklist Gunadarma? *facepalmed for a hundred time*
Terlepas itu benar atau tidak, persoalan mengenai blacklist Gunadarma ini sudah menjadi rumor. Tentunya rumor tersebut membuat resah mahasiswa Gunadarma terutama angkatan 2013 yang tahun ini akan lulus. Basicly banyak angkatan 2013 yang pasti melamar pekerjaan atau magang tahun ini. Kalau diblacklist, lah gimana ceritanya?

Jikalau rumor itu benar dan beberapa perusahaan memblacklist Gunadarma untuk jangka waktu tertentu karena kasus tersebut, I just wanna say: you are being outrageous. How come? Because you just commit to hasty generalization and injustice.

Sebenarnya persoalannya simpel, yang salah di sini tentunya yang membully dan kenapa jadi semua mahasiswa Gunadarma terkena imbasnya? Kenyataannya di lapangan mahasiswa Gunadarma mengecam keras tindakan tersebut dengan melaporkan kasus tersebut ke pihak kampus tanpa main hakim sendiri. Bahkan setelah kejadian itu muncul selembaran-selembaran tersebar di kampus D Gunadarma mengenai anti bullying. Mereka bersama-sama dengan pihak TNBG mendukung Farhan sepenuhnya dengan #supportfarhan #farhanadalahkita. 


Original Pic by @thenewbikingregetan

See? Justifikasi sebuah populasi dari 1% sample = ketidakadilan, dan mahasiswa Gunadarma tidak layak dipandang buruk karena kasus tersebut.

“Groups are grammatical fictions; only individual exist, and each individual is different.”

-          Robert Anton Wilson

Kita semua juga tahu bahwa setiap orang berbeda. Kualitas seseorang pun berbeda satu sama lain. Hal itupun berlaku ketika ada dua orang yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan yang sama, pasti hasilnya berbeda. Saya yakin banyak perusahaan besar dan profesional di Indonesia yang memahami hal tersebut. Therefore, as Gunadarma students who are going to graduate, you should show to the world that you are qualified. Don’t worry and let them see your dignity!

Lista Rani
Sastra Inggris UG 2013

References

Nordquist, R. (2017, June 30). Definition and Examples of Hasty Generalization. Retrieved from ThoughtCo: https://www.thoughtco.com/hasty-generalization-fallacy-1690919
Robert Anton Wilson Quote. (2017). Retrieved from IZQuotes: http://izquotes.com/quote/200007
Services, U. D. (2017). Effects of Bullying. Retrieved from stopbullying.gov: https://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/effects/index.html

Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Monologue: Who Am I


I’m stuck between who I am, who I want to be, and who I should be.”

Perhaps that’s the best quote that suitable for me right now. I am in search of myself about who I am and who I really want to be in the future.

I’ve heard once a saying by Mandy Hale, “Some steps need to be taken alone. It’s the only way to really figure out where you need to be.”

 Alone is the best way to find the answer of “who am I”.
 I agree.
Alone is the best way to discover the true potential of me. To know thoroughly about myself.

I start isolating myself from the crowd. Leaving all my jobs and start doing what I love.

            And, I enjoy it.

But then, in the middle of my solitude I ask myself:

 “Am I good enough?”
“Why I still don’t know myself?”
“Why I’m stuck?”

Time flies, second still counts, but why haven’t I found the essence point of my life?
            Am still lost…
I start crying… secretly.
I am being… paranoid.
Will I stay like this?

My fear about being lost, about being not good enough are profoundly big.

I DON’T KNOW MYSELF!

I need someone to tell me that everything will be alright, but no one comes nor understands.

Day by day has been through. The shadow of failure still haunts me almost always every second. I wake up and realize…

The shadow will always haunt me. No matter what, no matter when. And perhaps millions of people also feel the same way too.

Now I decide, for the sake of who I am. Under the circumstances of fully paranoid, I will do my best, I will keep doing what I love.

Because I believe when the best I invest, one day I’ll gain the best as well.


My name is Lista, and here I am. 

Sunday, 30 April 2017

Introduction to Linguistics

Linguistic is the study of languages. This is an esoteric knowledge of languages. The specialist of language refers to linguist. The father of linguistic is Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). There are still many other modern linguists beside de Saussure, one of the most popular is Noam Chomsky with his phenomenal theory Universal Grammar.
Due to the object of this discipline is language, therefore scope of linguistics are very broad. Essentially, it is divided into two big branches i.e. micro and macro linguistics. This article only discuss about micro linguistic which will be explained generally. However, writer will make an outline regarding both linguistics.
Micro Linguistic leads to the internal structure of languages, hence it is a very basic study of linguistic. Otherwise, macro linguistic refers to the external structure of languages. Micro linguistic consists of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, and pragmatic, meanwhile macro linguistic includes sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, neurolinguistics, stylistic, discourse analysis, computational linguistic, cognitive linguistic, applied linguistic, historical linguistic, and many more. 




Phonology is defined as study relates to the analysis of speech sounds. Basically, it is composed of phonetic and phonemic. Phonetic is the branch of phonology that study of how sounds are made via articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker without concerning whether the sounds distinguish the meaning or not. Three kinds of phonetics: articulatory, acoustic, and auditory. The most common studied by language learners is the articulatory phonetic since it relates to how humans produce speech sound. The other two relate to field of physic and neurology. Unlike phonetic, phonemic is a phonology branch study that its object refers to phoneme, it is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of language. The sounds that distinguish meaning is defined as phoneme. 

Branch of Phonology


Morphology is the study of word formation and the structure of words in a language. Words in a language consists of one element of meaning which are called morphemes. It is the smallest unit of words that have a meaning that cannot be divided further. One word can be consist of more than one morpheme. For instance: ‘Reconstruct’ is formed by two morphemes Re (morpheme) + Construct (morpheme) = Reconstruct (word). Morpheme is divided into free and bound morpheme. Free morpheme (FM) can occur alone by themselves meanwhile bound morpheme (BM) must occur with another morpheme.
Examples:
FM =    Girl     Love     Boy      At         The      He
BM =   -ly        re-       -ism
FM consists of open class (lexical / content) i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives, and closed class (functional / grammatical words) i.e. conjunctions, determiners, prepositions, articles, and pronouns. BM is contained in affixes and roots. The short explanation of both are below:
According to Oxford Dictionary online affix is an addition to the base form or stem of a word in order to modify its meaning or create a new word. Therefore, the affixes may or may not change meaning and part of speech of the words. It can be put in the initial (prefix), middle (infix), and in the end (suffix). For example:
Prefix   : inconvenient
Infix     : nowadays
Suffix   : helpful
Affix is divided into derivational (DA) and inflectional affixes (IA).  When DA is added to free morpheme, it commonly changes the part of speech of the word, such as pay (v) to payment (n). Otherwise, the IA doesn’t change the word class e.g. writes (v) wrote (v) written (v).
Roots are morphemes (not affixes) that may or may not stand alone. 


Syntax is the study of sentence structure i.e. how phrases, clauses, sentences are combined and constructed in particular language. The structure refers to word order that consists of syntactic categories i.e. parts of speech (open and closed class), phrase structure grammars (Noun Phrase (NP), Adjective Phrase (AdjP), Verb Phrase (VP), Adverb Phrase (AdvP), Preposition Phrase (PP)), and sentence, as the essential point of the structure. The syntactic categories are illustrated in a tree diagram called phrase structure tree



The phrase structure tree is also commonly called as tree diagram which provides information regarding syntactic categories in particular sentence. It is a formal device for representing speaker’s knowledge about phrase structure. Therefore, if ones want to make a tree diagram, they need to know phrase structure rules. These rules define the following: 


The parenthesis signify the categories are optional. Nouns do not constantly have to be preceded by adjectives and verbs do not always have to be followed by prepositional phrase.


Semantic and pragmatic are defined as study of meaning. Semantic is internal, meanwhile pragmatic is external. It means that semantic merely study the literal meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, and sentences without affected by context. It concerns with the relationships between signs or symbols, concept, and what they represent, and it does not account for any implied meaning.

Meanwhile, pragmatic refers to how context affects meaning. It focuses on the use of language in particular situation. Thus, pragmatic constantly concerns with factor outside (external) of language which speakers communicate using language. For example, when you and your friend stay in a hot temperature room, then your friend says, “It’s really hot here”, that person may imply to “Open the window, please or turn on the air conditioner, please.” Your friend does not merely express her/his feeling about the real situation through a statement “It’s really hot here,” he/she implies something else. Therefore, it is not a literal meaning.



Due to this post only aim to introduce linguistics generally, there are still a lot of things to observe regarding linguistics. In the following, there are some e-books, presentations, and  videos about linguistics that are needed to fulfill your further curiosity toward languages and linguistics. Break a leg!

Phonology
Morphology


Depok, 30 April 2017
Lista Rani

References

Andriyani, E. (2013, April). Syntax. Retrieved from www.slideshare.net: https://www.slideshare.net/Andriyanieka12/10-syntax-syntax-phrases-18509446
AR-Apps. (2015). Basic Linguistic.
H.P, A., & Abdullah, A. (2013). Linguistik Umum. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Introduction to (Applying) Linguistics. (2007/2008). Retrieved from www.fb10.uni-bremen.d: http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/anglistik/ling/gk-lingintro07/org/ws0708/exam-answer-sheet1.htm
Leon, R. D. (2015, July 30). Retrieved from www.slideshare.net: https://www.slideshare.net/renedictdeleon/morphology-linguistics-51088052
Nelson, B. (2016). Retrieved from slideplayer.com: http://slideplayer.com/slide/6392679/
Online, O. D. (2017, April 29). Retrieved from English Oxford Living Dictionaries: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/affix