Monday, 17 October 2016

Journal 4 of Language Assessment Class

It’s my journal 4, means that it’s already 4th meeting of Language Assessment Class. There’s a new rule for the whole student that we need to speak full English in the class. Of course it’s a challenge for us since English is not our native language. Each student reacted differently toward the rule, and here I’m going to tell what I perceived and felt in the class by speaking English fully.
Though it’s challenging, but it was fun and exciting. Other classes must implement same rule, so students will be used to it, especially we are a student of English literature that is supposed to be able to speak English fluently. We will not speak English frequently, if there is no rule that push us to do so.
If you ask me how it feels like, I will answer that it’s amazing. I hope it will happen every day. Imagine if it happens every day since I was in the first grade, probably I am now a master of English, or at least I can speak English well without hesitation.  But, it was just a day dream, the fact is I still do so many mistakes in speaking English either in grammar or pronunciation.
Suddenly, I was afraid of time that always flows, I was scared of being unqualified English literature graduate. Therefore, I hope that my junior will not feel the same. The faculty can implement the rule to the whole class as one of an effort to increase student’s skill in speaking English language.
I noticed the whole class. Most of my friends looked enjoying the rules, though occasionally they spoke incoherently. I presumed that what they feel is same as what I feel: fun, exciting, challenging, but in the same time, improve our English skill. Sure, it was great, and I would love to obey the rule. 

Monday, 10 October 2016

Journal 3: Reliability and Washback

I made a progress! I didn’t come late this time, and I hope that I can keep going like this to other classes. So did my friends. The number of my friends that came on time increased, and it so much better than before. This was my 3rd meeting of language assessment class.
As usual, before we learn new lesson, we reviewed what has been taught last week: validity. Hence, we have deeper insight related to it. We analyzed some test items by contemplating the construct validity of the items, so we knew what knowledge and ability which is going to be tested by the items. Other than that, we were be told several terms regarding assessment like test task, test item, lesson plan, and test taker.
After that, we went on to the new lesson which called reliability and washback. Term one, reliability, it refers to consistency. What kind of consistency? The test. Thus, the result of the test is consistent, hence it can be said that the test is reliable. Reliability of test can be caused by several factor, such as student-related reliability, it came from the condition of the student itself who became a test taker. How is health condition of the student when the test is held? Is he in trouble or not? However, it also can be effected not only by the student, but also by the examiner. Does the examiner teach lesson which is tested? Does he oversee the student when the exam is held? It is called scorer-related reliability. It is also influenced by all the things related to the time when the test is held e.g. conducive situation and clear test item paper. Anyway, this is what frequently happens during examination: unclear test item. Such things called test administration reliability. The test is reliable depends on the test itself, it is known as test reliability. In brief, reliability is essentially a test that you can trust, and to know it is trusted is by observing those aspects, namely: student, examiner, administration, and the test.
Term two, washback also known as backwash and consequential validity. Washback is a test effect. The test gives influence to the way students are taught. For example: In Indonesia, there is a final exam namely national examination that determines whether a student pass or not. There will be several weeks specially to prepare student in facing the national examination. Those weeks will not be used for teaching and learning activity, but for discussing hundred of test items regarding to the course which will be tested. The national examination certainly effects the way students are taught, therefore, basically, it influences teaching and learning activity. Washback is very important since it has essential effect to the learning activity. Therefore, a test must be qualified, thus leads to qualified teaching and learning activity.
Time has shown at 09.30, class must be over. We got new knowledge which called reliability and washback which sharpen our insight about assessment, and I was hungry, anyway! I did come on time, but I sacrificed my breakfast.

Saturday, 8 October 2016

Essay: 8 Mile Movie

Eminem as Bunny Rabbit in 8 Mile Movie

The movie was telling us about a young man named Jimmy Smith, J.R also known as Bunny Rabbit who dreamed to be a success white rapper. He had several friends which formed a rap crew together name Three One Third (313). 
After fired from his job in Little Caesars CafĂ© and lost the rap battle in The Shelter, a club which usually holds a rap battle in Detroit, he moved back to his mother mobile home at 8 Mile Road where’s the place dominated by black Detroit neighborhoods and white middle class Oakland County and Macomb County Suburb.
At home, he often faced with his alcoholic mother who loved playing bingo, fought with his mother’s boyfriend who also lived there, yet he treated his little sister gently and lovely. His broken home background seemed already made him rude, rebel, and fearless especially when he was facing chaotic, he would turn it into fight. It was compounded by their poor condition which made Jimmy had to work as a blue-collar worker in an automatic factory. Despite all those terrible circumstances, he determined to achieve his dream.
One of his friend named Wink who worked as an employee in radio station offered Jimmy to record his demo by using his connection while after then, Future, his best friend, told Jimmy to follow the Rap Battle in Shelter next week in order to revenge by competing against Tha Free World who was the enemy of Three on Third. Future told Jimmy that if he could beat them and won the battle, it would dignify his team and his own self, but Jimmy denied.
One day he met with a girl name Alex that then became his girlfriend, yet their relationship didn’t walk long because Alex was cheating with Wink. He discovered them was having sex when he was about meeting a recording producer in the Studio. Jimmy then beat up Wink then their friendship ended.
At the same time, his friendship with Future was in no good as he has confronted Future roughly because he didn’t want to follow the rap battle and Future secretly registered Jimmy to. So did in the house, his mother blamed Jimmy because the abandon of her boyfriend then he was quarreling with his mother and brought Lily, his sister, to his neighbor.
He fetched his sister and went home, but suddenly Papa Doc, the leader of Tha Free World came with all his crew and Wink. He knew that trouble was coming, so he told Lily to go inside the house. Wink and Tha Free World beat up Jimmy, Papa Doc wanted to shoot Jimmy with Gun, but Wink prevented him.
On Friday night, when Jimmy worked overtime Alex came to say goodbye as she was going to New York for her career. She indirectly asked Jimmy to come to the Shelter where the rap battle was held until finally he decided to come after and asked his friend to substitute his work temporarily.
In the shelter, Jimmy met with his friends in Three on Third and apologized to Future. All his friends supported him to battle tonight compete against Tha Free World. For three rounds, Jimmy won the battle against different member of Three World including Clarence (Papa Doc), the defending champion of the battle.
He went back to work after that championship, brought cheerful circumstance to Three on Third. He was getting closer with his dream.



Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. This definition is in line with E.B Taylor, he said, is “…that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”
Culture is the result of the interaction between human beings with all contents of universe. Culture exists because human beings created it and people can live in a culture they created. Therefore, culture also has roles as a guide for human relation with their group, a ‘container’ to express feelings, skills, and abilities, a clue about how human should act and behave in their society and environment.
As the role of culture is so much relates to environment, of course there is some influences which inflicted by culture toward environment. Hence, there are several variables related to issues of culture and environment:
1.   Physical Environment
2.   Cultural Social Environment
3.   Environmental Orientation and Representation
4.   Environmental Behavior and Process
5.   Out Carries Product 


8 Mile movie takes place in Detroit where there are many seedy neighborhood, unused buildings, and factories automotive. We can see from the movie that the residents live in a small mobile home which there is a lot of garbage around. Detroit City is known as the center of automotive industry, it seems in the movie when Jimmy Rabbit works as a blue-collar in one of the factory. With such environmental conditions, associated with physical environment, the theory of Environmental Determinism believes that physical environment does influence human action. So, I presume that is the reason why local inhabitant of Detroit tends to be rude. This can be seen from many scenes of the movie when Jimmy’s friend, mother, boss and Jimmy itself often say rough words and act rebel.
The movie represents two races that live in one place: poor black race and middle class white race. It means there is cultural social environment issue that encompasses aspects of culture along with its socialization process: norms, values, and customs. In this movie, the dominance of Negroid or black race make them feel superior, thus Jimmy as the white race often bullied by them. It seemed when Tha Free World mentions that Jimmy is just following rapping, one kind of hip-hop music, assumed not appropriate to Jimmy and they suggest him to ‘go home to mama’.
What interesting in this film is the issue about hip-hop, we can know how unique a culture is. In this case, rap is one of the elements of hip-hop which uses the vocal technique by speaking words quickly. The rapper often says offensive lyrics especially in rap battle that also as a medium of insulting foe. Even so, we cannot judge it as something wrong, even when we see it in moral perspective.
A class issue also appeared here, local people which mostly in lower class works as blue-collar worker. They actually desperately bored with such job that doesn’t change any life better, just in case making everyday survival. The worker expresses their feel in one day work in rap battle when they are in break time.
One most interesting aspect from this movie is how culture and environment can influence one’s personality. It relates to environmental orientation and representation and environmental behavior and process. From the smallest neighborhood, family, Jimmy is broken-home, his mother is an alcoholic who doesn’t care to her kids. She seldom shows affection, and gets relationship with a man which isn’t her husband. That makes Jimmy a rebel person. This is exacerbated by his social environment that also rude. His friend which most of them is negroid talks, acts, behaves rough is indirectly influence Jimmy’s behavior that becomes rude and fearless.
From explanation above can be concluded that the prevailing culture which developed in a particular environment has implications for the pattern of behavior, norms, values and other aspects of life that characterizes a community with other communities.

Journal 2: Validity in Language Assessment

It was my second week of my seventh semester. It was Friday, and I had language assessment class at 07.30. There‘s one strict rule that must be obeyed: come on time, and I’d just arrived at 07.45 which made me successfully late. The sad thing is I was assumed absent, but I still had a good reason to enter the class: that lesson.
When I entered the class, my teacher was had just instructed his students to make a schedule which later on will be used for pairing the student with same free time to discuss about something related to the lesson. Of course, it’s not real, it was like a simulation, but I thought the way my teacher divided a group is unique, and perhaps I should try to emulate his way if one day I were a lecturer.
After every student got partner to discuss, the very first thing to do was read each partner’s journal, and commented each other by giving suggestions. After finishing comment one another’s journal, then my teacher discussed what has learned in the previous week.
If in the first meeting I learned about the concept of language assessment and kinds of assessment, then second meeting I learned about test qualities. There’s a term given to those qualities called validity. What I understand about validity is it reflects the quality of test which shows whether the test is suitable with the lessons have been taught the whole time or not. In short, the test must examine what must be examined. Furthermore, the test must reflect one’s real ability or proficiency has achieved.
My teacher told the whole class that validity consists of 3C: construct, content, and criterion. The first one, construct validity measures hidden knowledge and ability, for example: reading skill. We are able to know singer’s skill by hearing their voice, and then we know whether their voice is bad or good. However, we cannot directly know the extent of reading skill of person because it tends to be invisible.
The second, content validity, a test quality which guarantees that a test is suitable with the content. It means that content validity of certain test can be called good if the test examines what’s should be examined. In schooling context, the test must be suitable with curriculum, syllabus, or lessons in class room meanwhile outside schooling context is vice versa. TOEFL, IELTS, and painting competition are example of outside schooling context of content validity.
The third which is the last, there is criterion-related validity, in accordance to its name, it measures a degree of person according to a criteria. A student can be given ‘A’ by his professor due to particular standards, such as: ‘A’ is given when the result is best of the best, ‘B’ means ‘Good’, ‘C’ means ‘enough’, and so on. This also applied to competition which commonly measure the participant’s skills according to certain criteria. Criterion-related validity consists of concurrent validity. The quality is seen by comparing some of the test results of student. For example: a student got an ‘A’ in every quiz and mid test, but then unexpectedly got ‘C’ in final test. The question is “what is the cause of ‘C’?” is it caused by the student itself, or the test which has bad quality, thus the student fails to get the test? There is also predictive validity which can predict a person’s future performance. It commonly used in IELTS, TOEFL, TOEIC, or any similar test to know the degree of person’s language proficiency. For example: Score 6 in IELTS is considered as a standard to a person to study abroad, so if I get 7 of  IELTS score, then I know that I have adequate ability to continue my study in UK.
            So, that’s all I got in language assessment that day, it was important to know quality of test because a good test will reflect a good result. Otherwise, bad test can affect the result of the test, and it can be predicted that the result also will be bad.